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„Ochrona przed Korozją” (Corrosion Protection) No. 04/2016

View cover and table of contents (in Polish and English) (pdf)


DOI: 10.15199/40.2016.4.1

Characterization of hydride electrode modified with Fe-Si layers by sputtering

Stefaniak A.

Bordolińska K.

Bala H.

Faculty of Production Engineering and Materials Technology, Department of Chemistry,

Częstochowa University of Technology, Al. Armii Krajowej 19, 42-200 Częstochowa, Poland

Magnetron sputtering method has been employed for deposition of thin Fe-Si layers on active powder substrate of LaNi4.5Co0.5 hydrogen storage alloy. The sputtering process was carried out through two different time periods. Cyclic galvanostatic charge/ discharge curves have been measured to evaluate the effect of sputtering time on the characteristic parameters of modified hydride electrode. The discharge capacity (Qdisch) of modified LaNi4.5Co0.5 powder alloy corresponding to N = 10 cycle was 229 and 250 mAh∙g−1 after 2 and 8 h of sputtering, respectively. The longer sputtering time the greater exchange current densities of H2O/H2 system on the modified electrodes. The exchange currents matching 10th cycle were 38 and 53 mA∙g−1 after 2 and 8 hours of sputtering, respectively.

Keywords: hydrogen storage alloy, magnetron sputtering, Fe-Si layers, charge/discharge curves


Vol. 59, nr 4

s. 91-93

Ref. 25

DOI: 10.15199/40.2016.4.2

The influence of iron and molybdenum on the corrosion proces of protective ternary Zn–Fe–Mo alloy coatings in chloride solution

Winiarski J.

Szczygieł B.

Department of Advanced Material Technologies, Faculty of Chemistry, Wrocław University of Technology,

Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland

The structure and chemical composition of corrosion products of Zn coating, binary Zn–Fe(1.7% at. Fe) and ternary Zn–Fe–Mo (6.6% at. Fe, 1.9% at. Mo) alloy coatings after 24 hours exposure in 0.5 mol·dm−3 solution of NaCl were investigated. It was established that the presence of iron and molybdenum in the zinc alloy coating has a positive impact on the protective properties of the coatings and on the homogeneity of the layer of corrosion products. X-ray diffraction analysis of coatings revealed the presence of: zinc oxide, zinc hydroxide, zinc hydroxide carbonate and zinc hydroxide chloride. Moreover, the corrosion products are almost the same for all tested coatings, regardless of the fact that corrosion potentials of these coatings vary considerably. The ternary Zn–Fe–Mo coating exhibits the highest corrosion resistance among all investigated coatings during 24 h immersion.

Keywords: Zn–Fe–Mo coating, electroplating; zinc corrosion, XRD, SEM


Vol. 59, nr 4

s. 94-97

Ref. 8

DOI: 10.15199/40.2016.4.3

A porous nickel electrode designed for methanol oxidation

Jaroń A.

Żurek Z.

Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Cracow University of Technology, Krakow

The process of methanol oxidation on porous nickel electrodes formed by means of high-temperature processing of spherical Ni grains was studied in the research work. The morphology of such obtained electrodes was analyzed with the use of the SEM technique. Electrochemical characteristic of porous nickel electrodes was performed in a 0.5M KOH solution containing methanol at a concentration of 0.05-0.25M. Techniques of cyclic and linear sweep voltammetry were used in the research.

Keywords: porous Ni, methanol, oxidation


Vol. 59, nr 4

s. 98-101

Ref. 12

DOI: 10.15199/40.2016.4.4

Influence of surface topography on the corrosion resistance of NiTi shape memory alloy nitrided at low-temperature plasma process

Witkowska J.

Kamiński J.

Tarnowski M.

Borowski T.

Woińska M.

Wierzchoń T.

Wydział Inżynierii Materiałowej, Politechnika Warszawska, Warszawa

NiTi shape memory alloys are used for cardiological and bone implants. However on account of the metallosis effect, i.e. the migration of the alloy constituents into the surrounding tissues, they are submitted to various surface treatment processes in order to improve their corrosion resistance and biocompatibility, without affecting the shape memory properties that need to be maintained. Comparative studies on the corrosion resistance of NiTi alloys both prior to and after nitriding in low-temperature plasma at a temperature of 300°C are presented. Nitriding under glow discharge conditions was conducted on samples with varying surface roughness. Examinations via the potentiodynamic and impedance spectroscopy methods (EIS) were carried out in Hank’s and Ringer’s solutions at 37°C. Corrosion resistance tests were supplemented by morphology and roughness tests of the surface of NiTi alloy both with and without a diffusive layer. The obtained results show an increase in the corrosion resistance of NiTi alloys after nitriding. There was a significant impact of surface roughness on the corrosion resistance of NiTi alloy both with and without a nitrided layer.

Keywords: NiTi alloys, nitriding, corrosion, physiological solution


Vol. 59, nr 4

s. 102-106

Ref.  9

DOI: 10.15199/40.2016.4.5

Biodeterioration of gypsum materials caused by fungi

Fiertak M.

Stanaszek-Tomal E.

PK Cracow University of Technology,

Faculty of Civil Engineering Chair of Building Materials Technology and Structure Protection

The article presents the results of the impact assessment of mould species Penicillium chrysogenum and Cladosporium herbarum on materials gypsum unmodified and modified with various additives. The results showed, that the polymer modifier has caused a slight growth of the fungus in comparison with other gypsum materials. Intensive development of these microorganisms significantly influence the mass humidity and water absorption of gypsum materials. Therefore, the presence of the fungi significantly affect the lowering of performance.

Keywords: gypsum plaster, Penicillium chrysogenum, Cladosporium herbarum, absorbability of water, ergosterol content


Vol. 59, nr 4

s. 108-114

Bibliogr. 27

DOI: 10.15199/40.2016.4.6

Range of polarization limited by a dielectric during electrochemical measurements of corrosion rate of steel reinforcement in concrete

Jaśniok T.

Jaśniok M.

Department of Building Structures at the Silesian University of Technology

This paper describes an original method for limiting the range of polarization currents over the steel reinforcement in concreto while measuring corrosion rate. The tests were conducted in the aqueous extract containing powdered concrete neutralised with carbon dioxide to model strongly carbonated concrete. The measurements were carried out in a three-electrode system using two methods: EIS and LPR. A single smooth rebar of St3S steel was a working electrode, and Cl/AgCl,Ag was used as a reference electrode. Two types of counter electrodes were used, that is a disk and spade electrodes, both made of stainless steel. A nonconductive PVC pipe and a disk electrode were placed into the solution to limit the polarization range in reinforcement. Ring shape of a dielectric was to model the conditions of reinforced concrete structure when the reinforcement cover was cut through its thickness and the resulting crack was filled with an insulator which simultaneously fixed the damaged concrete. Three variants of polarization measurements were performed – with a spade electrode, and a disk electrode with or without a PVC pipe. The analysis of results demonstrates that the ring-shaped dielectric restricted the propagation of polarization current by ca. 50% compared to the the disk electrode without the PVC pipe, which could indicate that the proposed method is effective.

Keywords: concrete structures, reinforcing steel, reinforcement corrosion, linear polarization resistance,


Vol. 59, nr 4

s. 115-121

Ref. 16

DOI: 10.15199/40.2016.4.7

Corrosion resistance of film VentureShield™ VS 7510 E to the presence of bodily fluids


The University of Bielsko-Biala


Bosmal Automotive Research & Development Institute Ltd., Bielsko-Biała


BELOS-PLP S.A., Bielsko-Biała

The study presents the results of the corrosion resistance research of DC01 steel, protected by VentureShield™ VS 7510 E film. This publication is a continuation of research in the subject of the use of film as a protective coating for steel, which is the base material of medical equipment and ambulances interior. The assessment of corrosion resistance of the examined material was conducted by using linear polarization method, according to the EN ISO 10271:2012 standard. Various corrosion substances were used, i.e. Ringer’s solution, artificial saliva and blood substitute. The data was referred to the research results of DC01 steel surface corrosion not protected by film. The results confirm that VentureShield ™ VS 7510 E film applied as a protection coating provides good protection against corrosion, in the contact with bodily fluids and may be used for the protection of ambulances interior, as well as in hospital environment.

Keywords: protective film, corrosion resistance, potentiodynamic method


Vol. 59, nr 4

s. 123-127

Ref. 6

DOI: 10.15199/40.2016.4.8

Effect of the powder consolidation with biopolymer on the corrosion characteristics of bonded magnets based on Nd-(Fe,Co)-B



Deptartment of Chemistry, Faculty of Materials Processing Technology and Applied Physics,

Technical University of Częstochowa, PL 42-200 Częstochowa, Poland


Institute of Production Engineering, Faculty of Management,Technical University of Częstochowa,

PL 42-200 Częstochowa, Poland

In this paper the effect of the Nd-(Fe,Co)-B powder particles consolidation process with difrent types of organic resin on the corrosion resistance of the bonded magnets in the aggressive environments was presented. The tests were carried out on the magnetic material based on Nd12Co5Fe77B6 powder consolidated with two types of resin (termo-setting epoxy resin and chemicalsetting biopolymer). Impact of the used consolidation process was rated on the basis of polarization curves recorded in: sulphate enviroment (pH = 3), phosphate enviroment (pH = 3), as well as in phosphate environment with chloride ions (Cl-) and Ringer solution (pH = 6) assigned during electrochemical measurements of polarization resistance. It has been found that the consolidation of powder particles with biopolimer has a beneficial effect on the corrosion resistance of the final magnetic material.

Keywords: bonded magnets, corrosion resistance, consolidation process, biopolymer


Vol. 59, nr 4

s. 128-131

Ref.. 27

DOI: 10.15199/40.2016.4.9

Impact of water environment on the durability of zinc protected steel pipes in hot water distribution systems


Cracow University of Technology, Institute of Building Materials and Structures,

Chair of Building Materials Technology and Structure Protection

The article presents the causes, mechanisms and consequences of the destruction of the zinc coatings on the steel pipes used in the distribution and hot water storage systems. References are made to the question of the influence of temperature variation on the properties of the system: water-the substances dissolved in it, interaction between metal and aggressive water medium and consequently the formation and development of various types of the corrosive electrochemical cells.

Keywords: zinc coated steel pipes, aggressive water environment, durability, corrosive electrochemical cells


Vol. 59, nr 4

s. 132-135

Ref.. 17

DOI: 10.15199/40.2016.4.10

Effect of 2-picoline based ionic liquids on a structure OF Zn-Co alloy coatings oxidized anodically




Wydział Chemiczny, Politechnika Śląska, Gliwice


Instytut Metali Nieżelaznych, Gliwice


Instytut Katalizy i Fizykochemii Powierzchni PAN, Kraków

Results of investigations on effect of selected ionic liquids addition to the baths being solution of sodium hydroxide on a structure of anodically oxidized Zn-Co alloy coatings. Four ionic liquids consisted of the same 2-methylopyridinium cation and different anions, i.e.: acetate, trifluoroacetate, orthophosphate and sulfate were applied in the study. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) were used in order to determination of a chemical composition of the modified surface. A corrosion resistance by LSV potentiodynamic method was also determined. On the basis of the realized study it was found that the addition of ionic liquids results in formation the oxide coatings without cracks. Moreover, the coatings are characterized by better corrosion resistance that the ones oxidized in the bath without ionic liquid addition.

Keywords: zinc-cobalt coating, Zn – Co alloy, anodic oxidation, ionic liquid


Vol. 59, nr 4

s. 136-140

Ref.. 14