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„Ochrona przed Korozją” (Corrosion Protection) No. 11/2014

 View cover and table of contents (in Polish and English) (pdf)

The role of the conversion reactions of NaCl to Na2SO4 and KCl to K2SO4 in reducing of boiler superheaters corrosion




Politechnika Śląska, Katedra Informatyki Przemysłowej


Transformation of potassium and sodium chlorides to sulfates in gaseous phase of coal combustion chamber plays an important role in reducing the threats caused by corrosion of steel tubes in power boilers. This article presents results of investigations of kinetics of NaCl to Na2SO4 and KCl to K2SO4 transformation in a gaseous mixture of composition similar to combustible gases in boilers. The experiments were done in an externally heated, tubular flow reactor in temperature range 815–930°C. Kinetics parameters of the conversion reactions were evaluated.

Keywords: chemical corrosion, combustion, kinetics



Vol. 57, nr 11

p. 422-426

Ref. 10

 Corrosion resistance of the grids lead acid battery – difficult compromise?


  1. M.


Instytut Metali Nieżelaznych, Oddział w Poznaniu


The problem of the corrosion resistance of lead acid batteries is presented. The causes of grid corrosion and its impact on the performance characteristics of lead acid batteries are described. Along with the description, the examples of damage to the positive electrode caused by this process are shown. Moreover, a second aspect of the corrosion resistance of lead grids is presented. This aspect is related to the formation of oxide layers that are necessary for obtaining adhesive connections with the active mass during the manufacturing process of lead acid batteries. These layers are crucial to produce electrodes of high electrical performance. In addition, the research on the interdependency between the corrosive properties of grids and the cycle life of cells containing this type of grids was presented. On the one hand, the lack of correlation between the aforementioned studies inhibits the interpretation of the results of corrosion tests in terms of properties and electrical stability of the battery. On the other hand, it shows that a simple interpretation of the corrosion parameters of grids for predicting the stability of the plate should not be expected.

Keywords: lead acid battery, active mass media, grids, corrosion, adhesion, interface



Vol. 57, nr 11

p. 427-433

Ref . 36

Corrosion protection in practice


Raising corrosion awareness in light of corrosion protection issues



Instytut Badawczy Dróg i Mostów, Warszawa


The losses caused by corrosion in the developed world exceed 3% of the world’s GDP, which in the case of Poland, exceeds more than the state budget earmarked for scientific research. Corrosion leads to catastrophes, problems in everyday life, slows down production and disfigures the surrounding environment. There are countless examples of buildings collapsing and other calamities caused by corrosion damage, however, interest in tackling this problem is scarce. The job of corrosion protection specialist does not exist in the Construction Law. No job certification is required in any corrosion-related job other than in cathodic protection, nor do universities hold any lectures on this subject.

Corrosion protection in Poland, the need to increase corrosion awareness by the government, in industry, among scientists and all citizens, as well as the possible solutions to this extent have been discussed. A good corrosion strategy will translate into an increase in safety, greater functional efficiency, higher comfort of life, better environmental protection and tangible savings in the long-term as well.

Keywords: corrosion costs, corrosion-related catastrophes, corrosion education



Vol. 57, nr 11

p. 435-439

Ref. 34

Corrosion protection in practice


The effects of inappropriate corrosion protection


Tikkurila Polska S.A., Dębica

Well-chosen and well done anti-corrosion protection can effectively protect steel structures by a dozen or even dozens of years. The effectiveness of the corrosion protection, particularly by protective coatings, is determined a lot of factors such as:

– analysis of the corrosive environment for the future building object,

– analysis of the technical design of the structure in order to eliminate the structural solutions conducive to corrosion,

– selection of appropriate protection method and coating materials (paints, metal coats),

– technology of protection in workshop and on site,

– technology of touch up painting and reparations of anticorrosion protection after structure erection,

– maintenance of protection coatings and anti-corrosive systems during exploitation period,

– planning and execution of future renovation of protective coatings.

Unfortunately, many mistakes are made in above described activities and it makes corrosion system protection ineffective and very costly. The paper discuss and analyses the most frequent errors and their effects during each step from planning of construction through its workmanship until its planning methods of restoration of anti-corrosion protection. Paper contains analyze of reasons of major problems:

– low level of knowledge about contemporary requirements and solutions for corrosion protection,

– suppliers influence on decision to choice of materials for corrosion protection,

– the selection of poorly prepared contractors for the correct operation of corrosion protection,

– lack of supervision of the implementation of corrosion protection.

Keywords: corrosion, corrosion protection, protective coatings, paints, surface pretreatment, economic effects of corrosion



Vol. 57, nr 11

p. 440-443

Ref. 8

Corrosion protection in practice


Cathodic protection personnel certification according to PN-EN 15257:2008




As per the requirements of European standard EN 15257, persons conducting technical activities in cathodic protection technology should demonstrate specific professional competences. Such competences can be confirmed by a certificate, issued by a personnel certifying institution accredited by the Polish Centre for Accreditation. The standard defines four sectors of application of cathodic protection (underground and immersed metallic structures, marine metallic structures, reinforced concrete structures and inner surfaces of metallic container structures) and presents the existing three levels of certification. The provisions of the standard relating to competence requirements, the scope of the required knowledge and professional experience, and the principles of conducting certifying examinations are discussed in the paper. In Poland, the cathodic protection personnel certification process is being implemented from September 2013 by the UDT CERT in Warsaw.

Keywords: cathodic protection, personnel certification



Vol. 57, nr 11

p. 444-446

Ref. 17

Corrosion protection in practice


Organizations in the field of corrosion in Europe and worldwide


International Paint Sp. o.o., Gdańsk


The most important organizations active in the field of corrosion in Europe and Worldwide are discussed. The review covers trade associations and organizations of individual members and/or collective members in the field of corrosion and coatings. Inspectors and certification organizations as well as examples of research organizations are also included. Attention is drawn to the profile and scope of operations, number of members, the period of activity, the strength of opinion making (at the discretion of the author) and profits to their surrounding coming from their activities. Polish participation in these international organizations is included. The aim of the paper is to introduce these organizations to the Polish corrosion community. It seems that the cooperation with many of them could give an opportunity to access information inaccessible in Poland, to enhance qualifications and expand the fields of cooperation.

Keywords: corrosion organizations, corrosion associations, certification of inspectors



Vol. 57, nr 11

p. 448-450

Ref. 3