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„Ochrona przed Korozją” (Corrosion Protection) No 03/2019

View cover and table of contents (in Polish and English) (pdf)




DOI: 10.15199/40.2019.3.1

Modelling the time of concrete cover damage taking into account the uncertainty of model parameters


Katedra Mechaniki i Mostów, Wydział Budownictwa, Politechnika Śląska


Katedra Konstrukcji Budowlanych, Wydział Budownictwa, Politechnika Śląska


Katedra Mechaniki i Mostów, Wydział Budownictwa, Politechnika Śląska

This paper describes the prediction of time of concrete cover damage. Selected parameters in the model were assumed as random variables with a uniform distribution (the so-called interval approach). Calculations were made using the Monte Carlo method and the finite element method, and then experimentally verified.

Keywords: reinforcement corrosion, concrete cover damage, FEM, plasticity theory

2019, Vol. 62, nr 3, pp.69-73

Ref. 11


DOI: 10.15199/40.2019.3.2

Corrosion resistance of materials for medical applications – quality requirements for the nd-fe-b/polymer composites


Faculty of Production Engineering and Materials Technology, Department of Chemistry, Czestochowa University of Technology, Poland


Faculty of Management, Department of Production Engineering and Safety, Czestochowa University of Technology, Poland


Faculty of Production Engineering and Materials Technology, Department of Chemistry, Czestochowa University of Technology, Poland

The quality requirements for materials dedicated to medical applications mainly refer to their the impact on the body’s tissues and body fluids. From a technical point of view, this mainly concerns to the corrosive characteristics of materials in media with different aggressiveness. The potential use of Nd-Fe-B bonded composites in restorative medicine is associated with the elimination of a toxic epoxy resin from the composite. The commercial mixtures containing commercial acrylic material polymerizing at different temperatures have been used to consolidate high-coercive Nd-(Fe,Co)-B powders. In this paper, the results of corrosion tests for Nd-(Fe,Co)-B/polymer composites with two types of acrylics polymers have been presented. The electrochemical tests have been carried out in various solutions (sulphate solution acidified to pH = 4 and 6, Ringer solution, phosphate solution acidified to pH = 3 also with the addition of 0.1 M Cl-) to present the spectrum of corrosive media impact on the material. It has been found that the use of low temperature polymer as a binder is more beneficial both in terms of corrosion resistance as well as for technical and economic reasons.

Keywords: bonded magnets, material quality, magnetic composite, corrosion test, quality criteria

2019, Vol. 62, nr 3, pp.74-77

Ref.  15


DOI: 10.15199/40.2019.3.3

Corrosion resistance of 304 stainless steel after anodic polarization in choline chloride-oxalic acid non-aqueous bath




Department of Advanced Material Technologies, Faculty of Chemistry, Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland

Preliminary studies on the possibility of electropolishing of 304 alloy steel in a new non-aqueous galvanic bath have been performed. 304 stainless steel was polarized anodically in (2-hydroxyethyl) trimethylammonium chloride : oxalic acid (1:1 molar ratio) eutectic solvent. By means of LSV technique it was found that the active dissolution of steel at 75 °C takes place at potentials between 0.1 and 0.7 V vs. Ag. Anodic treatment of 304 steel in eutectic mixture at 3.5 A dm–2 for 5 min caused selective dissolution of both the surface of austenite grains and their boundaries. According to the LPR and EIS techniques, raw degreased steel showed higher corrosion resistance after 120 hrs exposure to 0.5 M NaCl solution than that of polarized steel. However, SEM analysis revealed that the former experienced pitting corrosion, while the steel after anodic treatment in non-aqueous bath experienced only general corrosion.

Keywords: 304 steel; deep eutectic solvent (DES); electropolishing; EIS; SEM

2019, Vol. 62, nr 3, pp. 78-81

Ref. 7


DOI: 10.15199/40.2019.3.4

Surface condition of La2Zr2O7 based TBC system after hot corrosion in molten sulfate Na2SO4 salts



Silesian University of Technology, Institute of Materials Engineering, 40-019 Katowice, ul. Krasińskiego 8, Poland


Silesian University of Technology, Production Engineering, 40-019 Katowice, ul. Krasińskiego 8, Poland


University of Silesia, 40-007 Katowice, ul. Bankowa 12, Poland 

The top coat of thermal barrier coatings systems based on lanthanum zirconate after corrosion tests in molten sodium sulphide salt at 920 and 970°C was characterized in this article. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods were used to analyse surface topography, as well as the phase composition of corrosion products. It was determined the La2Zr2O7 coatings exhibit very good corrosion resistance in liquid salt environments. The basic destruction process has been associated with the formation of a lanthanum sulphate phase. Additionally, an effect similar to thermal etching was observed in splat areas, as well as a cracks network formed in the interspalt areas.

Keywords: TBC, hot corrosion, degradation mechanism, pyrochlore structure, DCL

2019, Vol. 62, nr 3, pp.82-85

Ref. 9


DOI: 10.15199/40.2019.3.5

The influence of the vibro-abrasive machining on the corrosion resistance of the zinc coatings


Akademia Techniczno-Humanistyczna w Bielsku-Białej


BELOS-PLP S.A., Bielsko- Biała


Instytut Badań i Rozwoju Motoryzacji BOSMAL Sp. z o.o., Bielsko-Biała


BELOS-PLP S.A., Bielsko- Biała


ZJG Kooperacja Przemysłowo-Handlowa, Gliwice

This paper presents the influence of the vibro-abrasive machining on the corrosion resistance of the zinc coatings. Research was focused on ball-eye links, made of steel grade 41Cr4. The vibro-abrasive machining was carried out in an R 320 device using porcelain polishing fittings type R 8/10 and technological liquid type COMPOUND FC after hot dip galvanizing. The use of vibratory finishing was necessary due to the improvement of the aesthetic qualities of centrifuged products. Comparative tests were conducted for samples without and with vibro-abrasive machining. The microhardness measurement was carried out using Vicker’s method according to standard EN ISO 6507 and metallographic tests to assess the structure and measurement of the zinc coating thickness. The assessment of corrosion resistance was carried out in accordance with EN ISO 9227. It was found that the use of additional treatment after galvanizing improves aesthetic features of products and does not significantly reduce its corrosion resistance. After 500 hours in a salt chamber on the sample after vibro-abrasive machining, the areas with red corrosion are slightly higher than on the sample without vibro-abrasive machining.

Keywords: vibro-abrasive machining, hot-dip galvanizing, zinc coating, corrosion resistance

2019, Vol. 62, nr 3, pp.86-91

Ref. 14


DOI: 10.15199/40.2019.3.6

The effect of C45 carbon black -Ag nanocomposite on the electrochemical properties of the hydride electrode


Czestochowa University of Technology, Faculty of Production Engineering and Materials Technology, Al. Armii Krajowej 19, 42-200 Czestochowa, Poland

The study investigated the effect of adding C45 carbon black treated with a solution of 0.1M AgNO3 on the electrochemical properties of a hydride electrode obtained using LaNi5 intermetallic compound. A spectrophotometric analysis confirmed the sorption of silver on the surface of C45 carbon black and allowed for the determination of its sorption capacity. The electrochemical studies conducted involved evaluation of the effect of modification of the composite powder electrode preparation on the amount of absorbed hydrogen and the kinetics of the hydrogen absorption/desorption process under the conditions of multiple charge/discharge cycles in a strongly alkaline environment. The synergic effect of the interaction of individual components of the electrode material improves the capacitance and electrocatalytic activity of the hydride electrode.

Keywords: LaNi5 alloy; C45-Ag nanocomposite; electrochemical properties, hydride electrode

2019, Vol. 62, nr 3, pp.92-95

Ref. 16


DOI: 10.15199/40.2019.3.7

The importance of the grain size of powder for spraying in shaping the utilitarian properties of WCCoCr supersonic sprayed on alloy Ti6Al4V


Silesian University of Technology, Institute of Materials Engineering, 40-019 Katowice, ul. Krasińskiego 8, Poland

The paper tests the influence of grain size in powder for heat spraying on the structure and chosen properties of coatings type WCCoCr supersonic sprayed on titanium alloy Ti6Al4V. It was shown in the paper that application of fine-grained powder for spraying with grain size of 15μm enables achievement of good quality layers without crackings and discontinuities with proper connection with metallic basis. Microstructure tests with application of scanning electron microscopy have shown that the coatings sprayed with the use of fine powder have very low porosity (0.2%) and are characterised with big homogeneity of chemical composition. Moreover, they have high hardness of 1221 HV0.3 with low value of standard deviation which equals 33. Such coatings are characterised with very good tightness and, in comparison with coatings sprayed with powder with standard grain size (45 μm), have better corrosion resistance in 3.5% solution of NaCl.

 Keywords:: supersonic spraying HVOF, alloy Ti6Al4V, coatings type WCCoCr, fine-grained powders for thermal spraying


Vol. 62, nr 3, pp. 96-104

Ref. 12


DOI: 10.15199/40.2019.3.8

The influence of the abrasive blasting on the thickness and the microstructure of zinc coating formed on the steel surface after flame-cutting


Politechnika Śląska, Wydział Inżynierii Materiałowej i Metalurgii Politechniki Śląskiej w Katowicach


BELOS-PLP S.A., Bielsko- Biała


Politechnika Śląska, Wydział Inżynierii Materiałowej i Metalurgii Politechniki Śląskiej w Katowicach

The paper presents the results of research on the influence of abrasive blasting on the thickness and the microstructure of the zinc coating formed on the steel surface after flame-cutting. The object of the tests were extension links to power lines, thermally cut from steel grade S355J2 and 40 mm thickness. The links were divided into three groups depending on the type of technological operations, i.e. normalization, grinding, shot blasting with GL 40 steel shot and sandblasting with 95A brown fused alumina. Then, links were subjected to chemical treatment and hot-dip galvanized in accordance with EN ISO 1461 (temperature 457 ° C and dipping time 2.5 min.). The microhardness measurement was carried out using the Vickers method according to EN ISO 6507 for samples taken from links in the various production stages. The steel structure after cutting and after application of the technological processing were evaluated as well as the zinc coatings structure and thickness in metallographic tests. The analysis of the chemical composition of the zinc coating in selected micro-areas was carried out. Based on the conducted tests, it was found that grinding of the surface after thermal cutting is the operation has a significant impact on the achievement of the required zinc coating thickness on the cut surfaces. Sandblasting after grinding ensures proper cleaning of the surface, which affects the thickness of the zinc coating. In comparison to mechanical methods (grinding, sandblasting), normalization after thermal cutting does not guarantee obtaining zinc coatings with the largest thickness.

Keywords: flame-cutting, abrasive blasting, hot galvanizing, zinc coating

2019, Vol. 62, nr 3, pp. 105-111

Ref. 10


DOI: 10.15199/40.2019.3.9

Electrodeposition of Zn, Cu and Cu-Zn alloy coatings from the galvanic baths based on 2-hydroxyethyl-trimethylammonium acetate




University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland


University of Silesia, Chorzów, Poland

Results of the investigations on electrodepositon of zinc, copper and copper-zinc alloy coatings from the galvanic baths based on 2-hydroxyethyl- trimethylammonium acetate have been presented in the paper. An influence of cathodic current density on structure of the deposits (SEM) was determined. Moreover, a chemical composition (EDS) as well as a phase composition (XRD) of the obtained alloy coatings were analysed. On the basis of the realized studies it was found that the current conditions influence on grain size of zinc coatings, however in the case of Cu and Cu-Zn coatings the effect is unessential. The electrodeposited brass alloys were solid solutions of zinc in copper.

Keywords: zinc coating, copper coating, Cu-Zn alloy electrodeposition, brass coating, ionic liquid, choline acetate

2019, Vol. 62, nr 3, pp.112-115

Ref.  15





Protection of machinery, equipment and of road and railway transport means against the aggressive media – an innovative technology for the application of rubber and ebonite linings


METALKO Sp. z o.o., Bydgoszcz

Since 1992 the Metalko Anticorrosion Division has been offering a wide range of corrosion protection for apparatus, transmission pipelines, tank of railway and road cisterns, etc. Technical safety and economic relations of the equipment construction for transporting chemicals require modernization of transport tanks. Currently used ones, especially in relation to rail tank cars, do not meet the requirements of users. The project realised by METALKO Ltd that involving the creation of a pilot line for the assembly of the latest generation of rubber coatings has been described. Each individual stages of building the prototype production line were described, including phase of material testing, modernization of technological instrumentation with the transition to practical application and dissemination of the results of research and development. The task was performed with own forces of METALKO Sp. z o.o. in cooperation with domestic subcontractors and with the financial support of the Intelligent Development Operational Program run by the National Center for Research and Development in Warsaw.

Keywords: tanks, vats, cisterns, transport of chemicals, chemoresistant coatings, rubberizing, corrosion protection, Intelligent Development, Metalko Ltd

2019, Vol. 62, nr 3, pp. 116-119


Certification of persons involved in cathodic protection – a new standard, new challenges



Cathodic protection technology of metallic objects in electrolytic environments, such as earth, fresh and sea water, industrial media or concrete – requires specialist theoretical and practical knowledge of people who implement it in practice. The study presents a new international standard that defines the required competences of people dealing with this corrosion protection technique. The scope of required knowledge and experience in the certification system and a brief history of the implementation of the standard in Poland were presented.

Keywords: cathodic protection, competence levels of cathodic protection persons, basis for a certification scheme, a new international standard

2019, Vol. 62, nr 3, pp. 120-123

Ref. 8