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„Ochrona przed Korozją” (Corrosion Protection) No 07/2017

View cover and table of contents (in Polish and English) (pdf)


DOI: 10.15199/40.2017.7.1

Corrosion properties of Ni-B/Al2O3 composites layers produced by electroless method





Institute of Precision Mechanics, Warsaw, Poland

The paper presents results of studies of alloy composite layers of Ni-B/ Al2O3 produced by electroless method on steel substrate. As the dispersion phase is the powder of aluminum oxide Al2O3 with nanometric size. Two variants of Ni-B/ Al2O3 layers deposited from a bath containing different amounts of aluminum oxide (5 and 10 g/dm3) were prepared and for comparison purposes the Ni-B layer without built- Al2O3 particles was also studied. The powder of Al2O3 and the produced layers were examined by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy and measurements of Vickers microhardness, and of roughness parameters of Ra and Rz. Corrosion resistance were studied by the potentiodynamic method in the environment of 0.5 M NaCl. The results of identifications of structure of the Al2O3 powder and produced Ni-B and Ni-B/ Al2O3 layers, their microhardness and results of corrosion testing are presented. The produced layers are compact and have uniform thickness. Incorporation of Al2O3 powder particles in a matrix of nickel-boron increases the level of surface development and increase of corrosion resistance.

Keywords: electroless method, composite layers of Ni-B/ Al2O3, Ni-B, corrosion resistance


Vol. 60, nr 7

s. 215-217

Ref. 11

DOI: 10.15199/40.2017.7.2



Scaling-resistant properties of valve steels covered by a thin chromium layer modified with yttrium





AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics,

Department of Physical Chemistry and Modelling, Krakow, Poland

In this work the results of scaling-resistance studies performed on two grades of valve steels, i.e. X33CrNiMn23-8 and X55CrMnNiN20-8, covered by a chromium layer with 1 micrometer thickness modified and an yttrium coating are discribed. The oxidation studies were carried out in air atmosphere at a constant temperature (1173 K), as well as in thermal shock conditions (298÷1173 K). The chromium coatings were obtained via magnetron sputtering (PVD). The valve steels, now containing a chromium layer on their surface, were then covered by an yttrium coating, which was electrochemically deposited using a 0.01 M Y(NO3)3 solution in ethyl alcohol. It was determined that modifying valve steel surfaces increases their resistance against oxidation. The application of multi-layer chromium and yttrium (Cr/Y) coatings leads to especially good results in the case of X55CrMnNiN20-8 steel, which exhibits the lowest scalingresistance among all of the studied valve steels.

Keywords: valve steels, Cr coating, Cr/Y coating, oxidation


Vol. 60, nr 7

s. 218-221

Ref. 7



DOI: 10.15199/40.2017.7.3

Corrosion resistance of fixed orthodontic appliance components in Ringer’s solution



Department of Advanced Material Technologies, Faculty of Chemistry, Wrocław University of Science and Technology



Division of Facial Abnormalities, Department of Orthodontics, Wroclaw Medical University, Wrocław


Department of Advanced Material Technologies, Faculty of Chemistry, Wrocław University of Science and Technology

Commercial orthodontic appliance components (wires, bands and brackets) were exposed to Ringer’s solution. EDS analyses showed that the materials were made of chromium-nickel steel. SEM examinations revealed only slight changes in the metallic surface of the orthodontic brace components after they had been kept in the Ringer solution (for 77 days). No potentiodynamic tests can be carried out on the orthodontic bands and brackets because of their complicated shape and small size. The electrochemical tests performed only for orthodontic wires. Potentiodynamic tests showed that the maximum rate of corrosion of the orthodontic wire made of chromium-nickel steel in the artificial body fluid amounted to 2.1·10-6 A/cm2. The aggressive action of chloride ions results in the selective character of the digestion of chromium-nickel steel. After the 11 week long exposure of the orthodontic components the concentration of chromium in the Ringer solution amounted to 0.10÷0.15 μg/dm3 while the maximum nickel content amounted to over 3 μg/dm3.

Keywords: orthodontic appliance, Ringer’s solution, corrosion, SEM, EDS, ICP


Vol. 60, nr 7

s. 222-225

Ref. 28



DOI: 10.15199/40.2017.7.4

The evaluation of the surface preparation for bolts made of steel grade 23MnB4 on the quality of the zinc coating


Academy of Technology and Humanities, Faculty of Materials, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Bielsko-Biała


BELOS-PLP S.A., Bielsko-Biała


Research and Development Institute of Automotive Industry BOSMAL Sp. z o.o., Bielsko-Biała


Academy of Technology and Humanities, Faculty of Materials, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Bielsko-Biała

The results of the evaluation of the influence of heat treatment on the nature of zinc coating obtained on the surface of steel grade 23MnB4 have been presented in the paper. The research focused on fasteners  hexagon bolts M12x40. The material for the research was divided into two main groups: bolts in the initial state (after tempering) and the bolts after annealing. A multistage treatment (mechanical and chemical) and chemical treatment were conducted before hot-dip zinc galvanizing (HDG). The HDG was performed at. 457°C in industrial conditions. The Vickers hardness test and metallographic analysis of steel and Zn coating were performed in the research. The corrosion resistance of the samples was determined by the potentiodynamic test (LPR). It has been proved that the zinc coating thickness formed on the surface after annealing is higher than zinc coating thickness on the steel structure typical of tempered steel. Corrosion resistance of galvanized bolts after annealing is higher than bolts on improving heat.

Keywords: hot-dip zinc galvanizing, zinc coating, 23MnB4 steel, corrosion resistance


Vol. 60, nr 7

s. 226-229

Ref. 9




DOI: 10.15199/40.2017.7.5


Anti-corrosion works conducted at engineering structures which are inhabited by birds



Conducting works related to corrosion protection of steelwork at existing engineering structures is, in a number of cases, hindered due to the fact such structures are often inhabited by birds. The removal of birds’ nests during the breeding period is not possible, whereas such removal in a non-breeding period requires adequate administrative regulations to be adhered to. The absence of information concerning the method of proceeding with birds’ nests located on the bridge hinders and, at times, even prevents from the commencement of works. All participants of the construction project are required to take supplementary measures which enable works to be conducted in line with applicable regulations concerning environmental protection. The issue in question is dealt with, first of all, during the renovations and repairs of existing engineering structures. The applicable legislation is described in this paper.

Keywords: birds, environmental protection, anti-corrosion works


Vol. 60, nr 7

s. 230-232

Ref. 10